Cybersecurity
Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ABVM (Attack Based Vulnerability Management)

ABVM is a method consisting in testing an environment’s attack surface security resiliency through running production safe attacks and leverage the result to prioritize patching.

APT (Advanced Persistent Threat)

An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a prolonged and targeted cyberattack in which an intruder gains access to a computer network and remains undetected for an extended period.

ASM (Attack Surface Management)

ASM emulates the adversary reconnaissance page to oversee and secure all attack surfaces and exposed digital assets, whether internal or external. It encompasses threat discovery, threat investigation, analysis, and remediation prioritization.

Attack Vector

An Attack Vector is a method or path by which an attacker gains access into a network for malicious purposes.

B

Breach and Attack Simulation (BAS)

BAS technology acts as an attacker in order to simulate thousands of possible threats your organization may encounter on a daily or hourly basis.

Blue Team

A blue team is tasked with protecting an organization’s asset against threats through gathering data, performing risk assessments, and tightening security control.

BYOD (Bring-Your-Own-Device)

BYOD refers to employees using personal devices in the workplace such as laptops, smartphones and tablets and connecting to the organization’s networks.

C

CART (Continuous Automated Red Teaming)

CART is a technology that automates Red Teaming to expand its process’ depth and breadth, enable scaling, and permit conducting red teaming exercises on a continuous basis.

CBEST

The CBEST framework provides a structured and controlled approach for intelligence-led security testing within the financial sector in the UK.

CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)

CERT is a group of experts who respond to cybersecurity incidents. (AKA CIRT – Computer Incident Response Team)

CISO (Chief Information Security Officer)

A CISO is the executive responsible for an organization’s information and data security.

CMDS (Computer Misuse Detection System)

CMDS is a computer security product that enables real-time detection of unauthorized computer use through audit data analysis.

CMMC (Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification)

The Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification is a certification issued by the DoD to ensure that contractors meet all cyber compliance rules and regulations.

CNA (Computer Network Attack)

CNA refers to any actions taken via computer networks to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy the information within computers and computer networks and/or the computers/networks themselves.

Compliance Enablement

Ensures that an organization is fully compliant with industry-wide privacy policies and information security regulations, such as GDPR, PCI, and HIPAA.

Continuous Security Testing

Continuous security testing is the practice of challenging, measuring, and optimizing the effectiveness of security controls on an ongoing basis, using automated testing tools.

CSPM (Cloud Security Posture Management)

CSPM is an automated service that monitors risks and fixes some security issues automatically.

CSV (Continuous Security Validation)

CSV technology continuously performs automated end-to-end attack simulations to test the efficacy of security controls and establish a prioritized list of required remediation actions and prescriptive mitigation instructions.

CSO (Chief Security Officer)

A chief security officer is the most senior executive of an organization that oversees all aspects of risk management, security policies, and IT infrastructure.

Cyber Attack

A cyber attack is a planned assault by cybercriminals that target computer networks and infrastructure with malicious intent.

Cyber Kill Chain

Developed by Lockheed Martin, the cyber kill chain is a series of steps that trace stages of a cyberattack from the early reconnaissance stages to the exfiltration of data. Cymulate’s Full Kill Chain APT Simulation Module solves the challenge of security effectiveness testing across the entire cyber kill chain

Cyber Risk Assessment

A cybersecurity risk assessment identifies the various information assets that could be affected by a cyber attack

D

Data Breach

A data breach is a security incident in which sensitive information is accessed without authorization. Data breaches can be either intentional or unintentional.

Data Exfiltration

Data exfiltration is the unauthorized transfer of data from a computer that is carried out through some form of malware.

DAST (Dynamic Application Security Testing)

DAST is the process of communicating with a web application through the web front-end in order to identify potential security vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses in the web application.

DoS Attack (Denial of Service)

A Denial of Service Attack (DoS) is an intentional cyberattack carried out on networks, websites, and online resources to restrict access to its legitimate users.

DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)

A DDoS attack will attempt to make an online service or website unavailable by flooding it with unwanted traffic from multiple computers.

DLP (Data Loss Prevention)

Software that detects and prevents potential data breaches, exfiltration, and protects sensitive data.

E

EDR (Endpoint Detection and Response)

EDR is an automated solution that continuously monitors endpoints activity, identifies threats, removes or contains them, notifies the security team, and provides forensic capabilities

Email Gateway

An email gateway is the email server through which every incoming or outgoing email passes in an organization. A Secure Email Gateway (SEG) is a device or software used to monitor emails that are being sent and received.

Email Security

Email Security refers to the set of methods in which emails are protected from attacks.

Endpoint Security

Endpoint Security works by defending the perimeter from all types of cyber threatsCymulate’s Endpoint Security vector allows organizations to deploy and run simulations of ransomware, Trojans, worms, and viruses on a dedicated endpoint in a controlled and safe manner. 

EPP (Endpoint Protection Platform)

a solution deployed on endpoint devices to prevent file-based malware attacks, detect malicious activity, and provide the investigation and remediation capabilities needed to respond to dynamic security incidents and alerts.

Exploit

An exploit is a piece of software that takes advantage of vulnerabilities in an application or system

G

GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation)

GDPR is a legal framework that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal information from individuals who live in the European Union (EU). It was adopted on April 14, 2016, and went into effect on May 25, 2018.

I

IDPS (Intrusion Detection and Prevention System)

IDPS is an appliance or software product automating computer systems or networks monitoringdetecting, and analyzing suspicious events and attempting to stop detected potential incidents. 

IoC (Indicator of Compromise)

An IoC is digital forensic evidence indicating that an endpoint or a network might have experienced a breach.

IPS (Intrusion Prevention System)

An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a form of network security that works to detect and prevent identified threats.

ITI (Immediate Threat Intelligence)

Cymulate’s Immediate Threat Intelligence vector helps you test your organization’s security posture against clear and present cyber threats.

L

Lateral Movement

The techniques in which an attacker moves further through a network in search of valuable and secured information. Cymulate’s Lateral Movement vector simulates a compromised workstation inside the organization and exposes the risk posed by a potential cyberattack or threat. 

M

Malware

Malware or malicious software is any program or file that is harmful to a computer.

MDR (Managed Detection and Response)

An MDR is an outsourced Security-as-a-Service solution tasking a third-party provider to detect and remediate threats on an organization’s network.

MFA (Multi Factor Authentication

MFA is an electronic authentication method in which a user is granted access to a website or application only after successfully presenting two or more pieces of evidence to an authentication mechanism.

Mitigation

Also known as Risk Mitigation refers to policies and processes put in place by companies to help prevent security incidents and data breaches.

MITRE ATT&CK Framework

The MITRE ATT&CK framework is a globally-accessible knowledge base of adversary tactics and techniques based on real-world observations.  

MSSP (Managed Security Service Provider)

An MSSP is a service provider that provisions remote software/hardware-based information or network security services to an organization.

P

Payload

A payload is malware that the threat actor intends to deliver to the victim. Payloads can remain undetected for months prior to being triggered.  

Penetration Test (Pen Testing)

A pen test is a simulated cyberattack on a system or network to exploit vulnerabilities.

Phishing

Phishing is a type of social engineering scam in which cybercriminals send an email that appears to come from a legit source but is intended to gain access to personal information such as passwords, login credentials, banking details, and credit cards.

Phishing Awareness

Phishing Awareness is a program to educate employees against the dangers of a phishing attack. Cymulate’s Phishing Awareness vector is designed to evaluate your employees’ security awareness. It simulates phishing campaigns and detects weak links in your organization. 

PII (Personally Identifiable Information)

PII is information that can be used to identify an individual.

PowerShell

PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft.

Privilege Escalation

Privilege Escalation occurs when a security flaw or vulnerability has been exploited to gain access to an individual’s secured account.  

Purple Teaming

A testing exercise combining the capabilities of both red team and blue team. 

R

Ransomware

Ransomware is a form of malicious software that encrypts a victim’s files and demands a ransom from the victim to restore access.

RBVM (Risk-Based Vulnerability Management)

A strategy prioritizing software vulnerabilities remediation according to the risk they pose to the organization.

Reconnaissance (Recon)

Considered the foothold or planning phase of an attack. Recon is the primary and most crucial stage of an attack where hackers conduct in-depth research and exploit any vulnerabilities to their advantage.

Red Team

Red teams are white-hat or ethical hackers that carry out attacks in order to test the organization’s defenses  more commonly referred to as pentestingBlue teams complement them by acting out the defense part of the simulation.

Red Teaming

The practice of rigorously challenging plans, policies, systems, and assumptions by adopting an adversarial approach. 

Rootkit

Rootkits are a type of malware designed to provide continued privileged access to a computer while actively hiding its presence.

S

SAST (Static Application Security Testing)

SAST is an application security tool that detects security vulnerabilities within applications’ source code.

Security Controls

Security Controls are countermeasures security practitioners use to minimize risk.

SHIELD Act

SHIELD is an acronym for Stop Hacks and Improve Electronic Data Security. The SHIELD Act requires businesses that collect private data of New York residents to follow strict data security and breach guidelines to ensure that their information remains protected.

SIEM (Security Information and Event Management)

SIEM is a set of tools and services offering a comprehensive view of an organization’s information security.

Smishing (SMS Phishing)

Smishing is a combination of the words SMS and Phishing. Smishing differs from traditional phishing attacks in that it targets text messages instead of emails.

SOAR (Security Orchestration, Automation and Response)

A stack of compatible software programs that enables an organization to collect data about security threats and respond to security events without human assistance. 

SOC (Security Operations Center)

An SOC is a command center for information security professionals 

Social Engineering

Social engineering is the art of manipulating people and coercing them to give up confidential information.  

SPA (Security Posture Assessment)

An SPA is a cyber security assessment program that is designed to give you an overall scope of your security risks and vulnerabilities.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a phishing technique that targets specific individuals or groups within an organization while posing as a trusted sender.

Spyware

Spyware is a form of malware that spies on you and steals your personal information.

SQL Injection

An SQL injection is a code injection technique to manipulate and even destroy your database.

T

Trojans

A Trojan or Trojan horse is a type of malware disguised as legitimate software.

TTP (Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures)

TTPs are the patterns of activities or methods associated with a specific threat actor or group of threat actors.

V

VA (Vulnerability Assessment)

VA is the process of identifying risks and vulnerabilities in computer networks, systems, hardware, applications, and other parts of the environment.

VM (Vulnerability Management)

VM is a security practice specifically designed to proactively mitigate or prevent the exploitation of vulnerabilities that exist in aorganizational environment. 

Vulnerability

A vulnerability is a weakness that can be exploited by a cybercriminal. 

Vulnerability Scanner

A vulnerability scanner is a computer program designed to identify and analyze weaknesses on a computer.

W

WAF (Web Application Firewall)

A web application firewall or WAF offers protection for web servers. Cymulate’s Web Application Firewall (WAF) vector challenges your WAF security resilience to web payloads and assists in protecting your web apps from future attacks. 

Web Gateway

A secured Web Gateway prevents unsecured traffic from entering an internal network of an organization and helps ensure that both company and regulatory compliance policies are metCymulate’s Web Gateway vector is designed to test your HTTP/HTTPS outbound exposure to malicious or compromised websites.

Worm

A computer worm is a type of malware that self-replicates once it has made its way into the infected system or network. Worms differ from viruses in that they do not require a host program in order to run.  

X

XDR (Extended Detection and Response)

XDR is a cybersecurity approach to traditional detection and incident response that integrates detection and response procedures across multiple environments. 

XSPM (Extended Security Posture Management)

XSPM is a holistic approach that combines end-to-end security validation techniques – including ASM, CART, BAS, and advanced purple teaming exercises – with optimization capabilities such as analytics, mitigation guidance, and vulnerability prioritization to facilitate minimizing breach feasibility while maximizing controls efficacy. 

Z

Zero-Day Attack

A Zero-day Attack or Zero Day refers to a newly discovered software vulnerability that is unknown to the parties responsible for developing a patch to fix the flaw.

Zero-Day Vulnerability

A Zero-day vulnerability is a flaw in a system or device that has been disclosed but not has been mitigated yet.